Printed Circuit Design & Fab Circuits Assembly January 2021 Cover
January 2021
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January 2021 • VOL. 38 • NO. 1
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First Person
Fabricator blowout revisited?
Mike Buetow
money matters
The Covid- and people-free factory.
Peter Bigelow
How to respond to supplier price increases.
Greg Papandrew
Tech Talk
Estimating the PCB design cycle.
John Burkhert, Jr.
From autos to airplanes, change is in the air.
Alun Morgan
A methodology for selecting the right material and the right price point.
Bill Hargin
A near real-time feedback loop between layout and assembly.
Hom-Ming Chang
What’s more in need of rehabilitation? The bonepile or supplier gateway?
Robert Boguski
Intermittent area array packages.
Bob Willis
January 2021 • VOL. 38 • NO. 1
Printed Circuit Design and Fab Circuits Assembly logo
Data Transfer
The latest IPC-DPMX standard offers unique bidirectional data exchange between design houses and their manufacturing partners.
by Hemant Shah
Printed Circuit Design & Fab Circuits Assembly January 2021 cover
As chiplet usage increases, chip-level concerns shift into the area of system-in-package implementation. A case study of the cost vs. performance tradeoff.
by Steve Watt
Despite the Covid-19 lockdown, HDP is coming off one of its most successful years yet, having completed 13 projects. New executive director Larry Marcanti and HDP facilitator John Davignon give an update of the consortium’s latest work and future plans.
Electrochemical Reliability
IPC J-STD-001G, Amendment 1, requires sampling plans to ensure soldering processes remain in control once qualified and validated. A well-vetted control plan that monitors the process and its performance on challenging components provides assurance that the process maintains control during the qualification stage.
by Bill Capen, Jason Edgar, Dr. Mike Bixenman, and Mark McMeen
Smart Manufacturing
The EMS behemoth is on the cusp of an all-automated future.
by Mike Buetow
Data Transfer
The latest IPC-DPMX standard offers unique bidirectional data exchange between design houses and their manufacturing partners.
by Hemant Shah
Printed Circuit Design & Fab Circuits Assembly January 2021 cover
As chiplet usage increases, chip-level concerns shift into the area of system-in-package implementation. A case study of the cost vs. performance tradeoff.
by Steve Watt
Despite the Covid-19 lockdown, HDP is coming off one of its most successful years yet, having completed 13 projects. New executive director Larry Marcanti and HDP facilitator John Davignon give an update of the consortium’s latest work and future plans.
Electrochemical Reliability
IPC J-STD-001G, Amendment 1, requires sampling plans to ensure soldering processes remain in control once qualified and validated. A well-vetted control plan that monitors the process and its performance on challenging components provides assurance that the process maintains control during the qualification stage.
by Bill Capen, Jason Edgar, Dr. Mike Bixenman, and Mark McMeen
Smart Manufacturing
The EMS behemoth is on the cusp of an all-automated future.
by Mike Buetow
IN the Digital Edition
PCEA in the rearview mirror.
Updates in silicon and electronics technology.
by Binghamton University


CAF and Electrochemical Migration
with Graham Naisbitt
Changes in the Mainstream PCB CAD Market
with Manny Marcano
Solder Voiding
with Tim O’Neill, Prakash Gango and Kalyan Nukala
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Caveat Lector
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‘Future Factories’ Require Thinking ‘Smart’ Today


wenty years has passed since the US was a world leader in printed circuit board fabrication production. And not just in revenues, which tended to run neck-and-neck with Japan. The US also had the capability and capacity to build the largest-format boards in volume.

That was 2000.

I remember talking with Jack Fisher, then the technical director of the tech consortium ITRI, about the coming year. We were reviewing the latest bullish industry forecasts, in which some of the major fabricators were quoting lead-times of six to 12 months(!).

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Around the World
PCDF People
Jonas Kottman Headshot
Altair appointed Matthew Brown senior vice president and chief financial officer. Brown previously served in finance leadership roles at NortonLifeLock, including as interim CFO from November 2019 to July 2020.
Jonas Kottman Headshot
Altium promoted Christopher Donato to head of digital channel. He’s been with the company in account management and sales positions since 2004.
CMR Surgical named Jesus Castane senior PCB engineer.
Kent Balius and Ken Smythe have launched EPIC Front-End Engineering.
Around the World
3D Glass Solutions, Nokia Collaborate on D-Band Signal Transport
ALBUQUERQUE, NEW MEXICO – 3D Glass Solutions collaborated with Nokia to deliver D-band signal transport. D-band signal transport requires integrated mm-wave modules with high spectral-efficiency. 3DGS worked with Nokia to develop a demonstrator for ultra >30Gbps speed wireless backhaul systems.

“This solution allows designers in D Band TX/RX modules the lowest loss and lowest cost point for TX/RX modules, as demonstrated by this radio-on-glass architecture for Nokia, operating up to 160GHz with less than 1dB of loss from the chip to the antenna output/input ports,” said Jeb Flemming, CTO, 3DGS.

“One of the reasons we’ve been able to achieve such extraordinary performance numbers using our RFIC on glass is because we’ve been working closely with the engineers at 3DGS,” said Shahriar Shahramian, director of sensing and communication ASICs research, Nokia Bell Labs. “Its unique etching process allows us to build things on glass that simply aren’t possible using any other process. At the same time, 3DGS’ willingness to collaborate and explore unexplored areas and applications has allowed us to build something incredible.”

“This is the next generation of ultra-high-performance radio-on-glass modules operating at these frequencies,” said Flemming. “Our demand for data continues to grow, and we are pleased to work with Nokia to deliver record-breaking solutions that can keep up with that demand.” (CD)

Around the World
Altium to Sell Tasking Business to PE Firm
SAN DIEGO – Altium will sell its Tasking business unit to a private equity group for more than $100 million in what the ECAD company is calling a “strategic divestment.” FSN Capital, a European private equity firm, will pay up to $110 million for Tasking, $10 million of it conditional on the company hitting certain revenue targets in the 2021 financial year.

The deal will close in the second half of Altium’s current fiscal year, which ends in June. Altium will instead focus on its PCB design software.

Tasking produces embedded systems development software. The unit recorded flat sales of $20 million in Altium’s fiscal 2020 due to Covid-related market issues.

Around the World
Infinera Wins Best Overall Design in Mentor’s PCB Design Awards
WILSONVILLE, OR – A team from Infinera and Jabil has been selected as designers of the best overall circuit board by a group of industry experts under the auspices of Mentor. (Mentor is now officially Siemens EDA.)

Now in its 28th incarnation, the PCB Technology Leadership Awards recognize engineers and designers who use innovative methods and design tools to address complex PCB system design challenges and produce industry-leading products.

The contest is open to any designs created with Mentor PCB solutions. Judging is based on design complexity and overcoming associated challenges, such as small form factors, high-speed protocols, multi-discipline team collaboration, advanced PCB fabrication technologies, and design-cycle time reduction.

Experts in the PCB industry judged entries from around the world in categories representing computers, blades and servers, memory systems; consumer electronics and handheld designs; industrial control, instrumentation, security and medical applications; military and aerospace solutions; telecom, network controllers, line cards; transportation and automotive designs.

The panel of judges this year included Dr. Rajan Bedi, Stephen Chavez, Mike Creeden, Gary Ferrari, Rick Hartley, Steve Herbstman, Happy Holden, Pete Waddell and Susy Webb. (CD)

Around the World
Emerald EMS Acquires Saline Lectronic, Veris Manufacturing
SALEM, NH – Emerald Electronics Manufacturing Services has acquired a pair of electronics manufacturing service providers, extending its range to the Midwest US and adding capacity in Southern California. The deals also expand the EMS company’s reach into the defense and medical end-markets.

Both Saline, MI-based Saline Lectronics and Brea, CA-based Veris Manufacturing are manufacturers of high-mix, low- to medium-volume printed circuit board assemblies and box-builds for high-reliability end markets, including industrial controls, aerospace and defense, and medical.

Around the World
Syrma Technology, SGS Tekniks Merge
SAN JOSE – Syrma Technology in November merged with SGS Tekniks in a cash and stock deal of Indian EMS companies.

Syrma SGS Technologies will have a combined revenue of more than Rs 10 billion ($134 million). Some 55% of revenues are from exports to the US and Europe. The combined company aims for 20% year-over-year growth.

The companies did not disclose any financial terms of the deal.

Syrma SGS Technologies will have eight manufacturing facilities in India and three design centers, including in Chennai and Gurgaon, India, and Stuttgart, Germany. Currently, Syrma and SGS each have four factories in India.

Syrma designs and manufactures RFID technology, power electronics, and turnkey manufacturing services and custom magnetics, and delivers IoT products for the automotive, computing, industrial, medical, power, and telecom companies. Medical and defense electronics are surging, the firm says. (CD)

Around the World
CA People
Benetel named Alan Hynes director of engineering.
Creative Electron named Jeff Darby vice president of business development.
Kristiina Leppänen Headshot
Enics appointed Kristiina Leppänen chief financial officer. Prior to joining Enic, Leppänen was CFO for Cavotec, among other executive positions.

Dennis Rutherford Headshot
Nordson Test & Inspection named Dennis Rutherford general manager, rest of Asia. He joined Nordson in 2016 after 15 years in high level sales positions with electronics inspection OEMs.
Around the World
CA Briefs
Absolute EMS installed a Hanwha HM520 SMT line.

AIM Solder opened a 12,000 sq. ft. ISO 9001-certified solder manufacturing facility in Malaysia.

Amazon has laid off dozens of R&D and manufacturing staff from its delivery drone project, Amazon Prime Air, and will outsource production.

Apple has reportedly started sending foldable iPhones to Foxconn for testing, with a possible release in September 2022.

Apple’s plans to move the production of devices away from China received a major upswing, with several partners entering India through the government’s Production-Linked Scheme (PLI).

SMIC and China Electronics Technology Group are among more than 30 companies blacklisted by the Trump administration for their suspected ties to the Chinese military. CETG is the parent of TPV Technology and Shenzhen Kaifa, two of the largest ODM/EMS companies in the world.

Market Watch
Out of Storage

Trends in the U.S. electronics equipment market (shipments only).

Computers and electronics products
Storage devices
Other peripheral equipment
Nondefense communications equipment
Defense communications equipment
A/V equipment
Nondefense search and navigation equipment
Defense search and navigation equipment
Medical, measurement and control
rRevised. *Preliminary. 1Includes semiconductors. Seasonally adjusted.
Source: U.S. Department of Commerce Census Bureau, Dec. 4, 2020
Revealed: Technology Really Works!
Now, just how many people can we move off the floor?
THIS PAST YEAR was most unusual, distracting and challenging, and many of those distractions and challenges appear they will remain with us well into the first half of the year. As industry begins to focus on post-pandemic planning, however, much has been learned over the past year that can and is being applied to planning for the future.

Possibly the most significant thing learned is technology can – and does – work! A generation of manufacturing and technology leaders knew little of platforms such as Zoom, WebEx, etc. Through baptism by fire, we have become believers in virtual interaction, its effectiveness and value. Equally significant is the realization that for many business functions, including those in manufacturing, remote working – aka working from home – works and offers much more flexibility than the traditional structured workplace.

PCB Costs Are Going Up. Here’s What to Do
How to respond to supplier price increases.
Demand for printed circuit boards is going up. But so are production costs.

Raw PCB material pricing has jumped about 40% since June, with the exact increase dependent on material type. This price increase was inevitable and is, in fact, overdue.

During the early months of the Covid crisis, most PCB suppliers were hesitant to pass on their already-increasing material costs. But as China has rebounded faster from the Covid slowdown than the US and Europe, demand for production has escalated. PCB vendors are now more willing to pass higher material costs onto their customers. And the price increases are by no means over.

designer’s notebook
Estimating the PCB Design Cycle with Limited Information (and Then Making It Happen)
What Charlie Brown can teach us about board design.
Not all boards are alike. In fact, no two are exactly the same. That’s kind of the point. We always do something that hasn’t been done before, or we wouldn’t be doing it. The best we can say is many boards share similarities. Just the same, someone in every organization wants to know when the one-off job will be completed.

Often, there is a predetermined schedule in which someone who has never drawn a trace decides when the PCB layout needs to be finished. Such a schedule is usually the result of market forces. It could be back-to-school, CES, or even (especially) a rocket launch date that drives the deadline. Still, it’s not unusual for stakeholders to ask your opinion about the estimated tape-out date.

Material Gains
Today’s Best Technologies are the Roadmap to an Even Better Future
From autos to airplanes, change is in the air.
2020 has been an unusual and challenging year, although many of us can be thankful for the resilience of high-tech industries. Indeed, activity has surged in some sectors, and generally the outlook is relatively buoyant.

In my other role as president of the EIPC (European Institute for the PCB Community), I moderated the Institute’s Technical Snapshot webinar last November, at which Dr. Shiuh-Kao Chiang of Prismark described how various sectors have fared. While 5G infrastructure rollouts slowed and handset shipments fell about 10%, the PC market has been buoyed by the increase in work-from-home, and certain consumer markets such as wearables and smart appliances have also done well. Overall, he noted a surprising robustness across the electronics, semiconductor and substrate markets.

PCEA 2020: Small Rearview Mirror, Big Windshield
A successful first year promises even bigger things to come.
In this month’s forward-driving column, I glance back at PCEA’s year in “rearview,” which included an energetic jump-start, some challenging air filter retrofitting, some remote diagnostics, and a final refueling at a successful virtual chapter meeting. Next, I hit cruise control and rely on PCEA chairman Stephen Chavez, who focuses on what lies ahead between the vanishing points of highways 2020 and 2021. As always, I’ll also point out some interesting events for you to consider attending.
PCEA Updates
The past year can be viewed as one of the many good metaphors based on cars and driving, pointing out the differences in size between a rearview mirror and a windshield. You only need to glance in a rearview mirror when backing up or trying to see what may be overtaking you. But if you’re driving forward, your main focus should be on the large, clear windshield to see what’s coming.
Material matters
Cutting Your Losses Upfront in PCB Design
A methodology for selecting the right material and the right price point.
When I started writing this column a couple years ago, I wondered how much I’d have to say. An experienced media guy told me to watch my inbox for topics and questions that may be of general interest. That turned out to be excellent advice. Here’s one such example.

“What is the best laminate for a loss budget of x dB for y inches? I was thinking in terms of Panasonic Megtron 6 or something like it.”

Megtron 6 is an excellent material, but it’s not cheap and it’s not the only horse in the race. My response was to focus on a loss and material-planning methodology rather than making a firm material recommendation.

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Data Transfer
New DfX Module for IPC-2581 Slices Design-Manufacturing Time, Errors
The latest IPC-DPMX standard offers unique bidirectional data exchange between design houses and their manufacturing partners.
The authors of IPC-DPMX, previously known as IPC-2581, have come up with an innovative solution for addressing the needs of the industry for the latest version of the electronics data transfer standard. Developed by the industry, IPC-DPMX has many new enhancements. The just-released Revision C has been reviewed and unanimously approved by the PCB design, analysis and supply chain industry.

IPC-2581B introduced the concept of bidirectional data exchange between design houses and their manufacturing partners. It sought to eliminate the back-and-forth between partners at the very end of the design cycle for communicating and ensuring that critical net impedances were achievable. This communication was important earlier in the design cycle and impacted the layer stack-up, which is hard to change at the end, when design is complete and handed off. Although this innovation was unveiled almost seven years ago, it is still unmatched and unique within an open standard.

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Chiplet Implementation via Virtual Prototyping
Assessing the cost vs. performance tradeoff. by STEVE WATT
In the evolution of silicon implementation, creative solutions to costly problems have become standard practice. One of these solutions is the use of a “chiplet.” A chiplet is precisely what it sounds like: a smaller version of a chip. This doesn’t mean it’s a miniature version. It means that only critical functions that derive significant benefits from a 5 or 7nm fabrication process are included on the chip. Other functions that will work well with 10nm or greater can then be fabricated with appropriate cost savings.

Chiplet technology creates a challenge, however. If all functions were included in the chip, the interfaces could more easily be measured and evaluated. These items now must be accounted for on a package or, more accurately, a system-in-package (SiP) (FIGURE 1). This places greater importance on the electrical characteristics of those interfaces and how that SiP implementation affects that behavior. Thus, there is a need to rapidly assess these issues with minimal effort for maximum results via virtual prototyping.

Are Older Standards Still Valid, or Holding the Industry Back?
That’s one of the questions the new leadership at HDP plans to address in 2021. by MIKE BUETOW
In late November Marshall Andrews stepped down as the longest-serving head of The High-Density Packaging (HDP) User Group. But as Larry Marcanti assumes the role of executive director of the decades-old electronics consortium, don’t expect big changes.

On Andrews’ 15-year watch, HDP’s membership increased by more than 30 companies, to reach more than 50 total. The ongoing project portfolio rose from five to an average of 25 member-driven activities.

Despite the Covid-19 lockdown, HDP is coming off one of its most successful years yet, having completed 13 projects.

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Electrochemical Reliability
Process Control Plan to Monitor Acceptable Levels of Flux and Other Residues
Because electrochemical failure risk is site-specific, different components need different plans. by BILL CAPEN, JASON EDGAR, DR. MIKE BIXENMAN and MARK MCMEEN
Highly dense electronic assemblies incorporate bottom-terminated components. Miniaturized components create numerous challenges, resulting in a shorter distance between conductors of opposite polarity, solder sphere size reduction, low-standoff gaps, flux entrapment under the bottom termination, blocked outgassing channels, and more significant potential for leakage currents.1

In the presence of humidity, moisture (mono-layers of water) hydrogen bonds with ionic contaminants to create an electrolytic solution. Ions such as flux activators can dissolve metal oxides present in the flux residue at the soldered connection.2 When the system is in operation, the electrical field attraction of the positively charged metal ions migrate to the negative conductor. These metal ions can plate small dendrites, resulting in leakage currents and/or parasitic leakage. As such, ionic residue testing is used to test for problematic residues that could hinder reliable circuit function.3

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Smart Manufacturing
Lights Out at USI
The EMS behemoth is on the cusp of an all-automated future.
By almost any measure Universal Scientific Industrial is an EMS behemoth. Yet most of the press surrounding USI over the past few years has been tied to its recent acquisition of AsteelFlash. The deal, completed last month, added 17 manufacturing sites and about $1 billion in topline revenue. For the first time, USI will have sites in the US, Africa and Western Europe.

Today, USI has 27 manufacturing locations in 10 countries, over 24,000 employees and revenue of more than $7 billion. That’s good for the 11th spot in the current CIRCUITS ASSEMBLY Top 50 rankings. There’s no missing the company now.

Yet for all its size, USI could just as easily be recognized for its technical prowess. The company is on the cutting edge of so-called lights-out manufacturing, where few if any staff are found on the factory floor where hundreds of SMT machines run seamlessly, connected by sophisticated software and AGVs feeding the cells on a just-in-time basis.

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Optimizing Design for Manufacturability Analysis
A near real-time feedback loop between layout and assembly.

Two core tenets of Lean manufacturing philosophy are eliminating defect opportunities and minimizing process variation. Consequently, most companies embracing Lean principles do some form of design for manufacturability (DfM) analysis to identify manufacturability issues either during design or in the new product introduction phase. In some cases, this is an automated feature of design software. In other cases, this is done manually.

SigmaTron has adopted a hybrid process that uses software automation to speed basic analysis, followed by an engineering review. This E-DFM software tool reduces the time it takes to create a detailed report from several days to a few hours and works with SigmaTron’s existing Valor software platform.

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State-of-the-Art Technology Flashes
Updates in silicon and electronics technology.
Ed.: This is a special feature courtesy of Binghamton University.
Bending an organic semiconductor boosts electrical flow. Organic transistors based on single crystals of rubrene can double the speed of electricity flowing through them when a crystal is slightly bent (strained). This behavior cannot be easily achieved with traditional semiconductors made of silicon. Rutgers University researchers found molecules of rubrene are arranged in a herringbone pattern (upper left in figure), forming highly ordered semiconducting molecular crystals that can be used to create rigid or flexible high-performance organic transistors, based on thick or ultra-thin single crystals, respectively. An example of a freestanding rubrene transistor is shown on a fingertip. This method could benefit next-generation electronics. (IEEC file #11946, NASA Tech Briefs, 10/1/20)
Seeing is Believing
Encrypted Opinions
What’s more in need of rehabilitation? The bonepile, or supplier gateway?
Hello, I would like to get some information about your capabilities for Bonepile Rehabilitation. I have some legacy circuit cards that were previously tested on a FACTRON 750. Can you reverse engineer the schematics/gerbers from a known good board? Once you have diagnosis (sic) the problem on a failed board, can you also perform the repair? Are you cybersecurity certified for ITAR data?

This is how an unsolicited customer engagement often begins. No unusual requirements here, other than the obvious need for remedial grammar lessons.

“Yes, yes and yes.”

Good. Then you may be able to assist us. What is your process?

Bonepile rehabilitation and reverse engineering in our world are two different things. When we say bonepile rehabilitation, we are usually talking about troubleshooting boards that have failed, either in the field or in functional/system test, and using the tools we have here at our facility to troubleshoot, repair, and restore them to service. In most cases design documentation (bill of materials, CAD, schematic, Gerber files, etc.) still exist, and are used in this activity, especially to develop test programs (flying probe, JTAG/boundary scan, etc.).

defect of the month
Resolving Intermittent Area Array Packages with Video Simulation
Excessive temperature or moisture may be to blame.
Open connections on area array packages can be difficult to spot, particularly if they are intermittent electrical failures like the examples in FIGURE 1. One or more open joints can occur between the package and solder sphere or at the PCB pad interface. Reflow soldering with either convection or vapor phase can cause packages to move and separate. This can be caused by warping of the package or in some cases minor popcorning due to moisture. Both faults can be simulated and recorded with video for reference.
Off The Shelf
off the shelf typography
Machines Materials Tools Systems Software
CAM350/DFMStream v. 14.5
DownStream CAM350/DFMStream v. 14.5
CAM350/DFMStream v. 14.5 now supports importation and visualization of CAD designs containing flex, rigid-flex and embedded component data in both 2-D and 3-D views. Imports and visualizes flex/rigid-flex data created by PCB CAD tools in 2-D and 3-D view ports, as well as documenting rigid/rigid-flex stack-ups; can share documentation with fabricators. Features include import/export ODB++ and IPC-2581 modification; import/export modification to support PCB core material data; stack-up visualizer modification; 3-D view port modification; area tool modification; DfM analysis modification; parametric solder and paste mask generation; assembly panel creation.
DownStream Technologies
Apeiron UV laser drill machine
Orbotech Apeiron
Apeiron performs UV laser drilling on flexible printed circuits in a roll-to-roll manufacturing configuration. Multi-path technology with two laser beams and four large-scan-area drilling heads can drill in four locations simultaneously. Internal roll-to-roll using roll-inside technology. Provides built-in beam validation tools for size, roundness and energy distribution with continuous beam uniformity technology. Offers roll-to-roll and sheet-by-sheet handling of thin flex cores with capacity to drill two panel sheets side by side. Optional roll widths of 260mm and up to 520mm. Minimum via size is 20 µm. Footprint is 5 sq. m.
Linexo laser processing workstation
Innolas Linexo
Linexo laser processing workstation is for R&D and smaller substrate production, e.g., ceramic PCBs. Features fixed optic or scanner setup, single- or dual-process heads, process gas (N2, O2, Ar, etc.). Can process one or more substrates in parallel.

Other features include automatic camera calibration, automated routines for reference runs, automated process control, and automated vision system for precision alignment and scaling, offset, trapezoidal and rotation compensation. Comes as standalone or integrated in production line.

Innolas Solutions
Off The Shelf
off the shelf typography
Machines Materials Tools Systems Software
6 Series B mixed signal oscilloscope
Tektronix 6 Series B
6 series B mixed signal oscilloscope extends performance to 10GHz and 50GS/sec. Offers signal fidelity with 12-bit ADCs and low noise, 10GHz bandwidth and up to 8 FlexChannel inputs. Contributes less than 51.1µV of noise at 1mV/div and 1GHz and less than 1.39mV of noise at 50 mV/div and 10GHz. Bandwidth is more than 2GHz with 4, 6 or 8 channels. Built-in digital down converters behind every channel enable multi-channel spectrum analysis.
SelectiveRider soldering pallet
ECD SelectiveRider
SelectiveRider soldering process measurement pallet performs automated verification for wave, reflow and selective processes. Validates three phases of selective soldering: fluxing, pre-heating and soldering. Verifies flux location and accuracy; confirms dispense X/Y positional precision; IDs blocked or unprimed spray heads; verifies dot size, and more.
Four models of AR series environmental stress chambers
Espec AR Series
Four new models of AR series environmental stress chambers are capable of precise control over a temp. range of -70° to +180°C (with optional support for up to 200°C) and a humidity range of 10% to 98%RH. Air temp. can be raised or lowered at rate of 10°C per min. or 15°C per min. during testing between -40° and +125°C. with or without humidity control. Comply with IEC international standards and LV 124. Stable control possible for 95°C/98%RH and other high-temp., high-humidity tests.
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Technical Abstracts
In Case You Missed It
AI-Based Semiconductors
“Fully Light-Controlled Memory and Neuromorphic Computation in Layered Black Phosphorusy”

Authors: Taimur Ahmed, et al.

Abstract: Imprinting vision as memory is a core attribute of human cognitive learning. Fundamental to artificial intelligence systems are bioinspired neuromorphic vision components for the visible and invisible segments of the electromagnetic spectrum. Realization of a single imaging unit with a combination of in-built memory and signal processing capability is imperative to deploy efficient brain-like vision systems. However, the lack of a platform that can be fully controlled by light without the need to apply alternating polarity electric signals has hampered this technological advance. Here, a neuromorphic imaging element based on a fully light-modulated 2-D semiconductor in a simple reconfigurable phototransistor structure is presented. This standalone device exhibits inherent characteristics that enable neuromorphic image pre-processing and recognition. Fundamentally, the unique photo response induced by oxidation-related defects in 2-D black phosphorus (BP) is exploited to achieve visual memory, wavelength-selective multibit programming, and erasing functions, which allow in-pixel image pre-processing. Furthermore, all optically-driven neuromorphic computation is demonstrated by machine learning to classify numbers and recognize images with an accuracy of over 90%. The devices provide a promising approach toward neurorobotics, human-machine interaction technologies, and scalable bionic systems with visual data storage/buffering and processing. (Advanced Materials, November 2020,

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