Printed Circuit Design & Fab Circuits Assembly September 2022 cover
September 2022
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September 2022 • VOL. 39 • NO. 9
Printed Circuit Design and Fab Circuits Assembly logo
First Person
Up in the air.
Mike Buetow
money matters
Tribal circle.
Peter Bigelow
Investment in capacity, investment in people.
Greg Papandrew
Tech Talk
Getting in line.
John Burkhert, Jr.
Classical computing is no quantum leap.
Alun Morgan
Leveraging the horizontal report.
Aida Hinojosa
A wholesale no sale.
Robert Boguski
September 2022 • VOL. 39 • NO. 9
Printed Circuit Design and Fab Circuits Assembly logo
Inflation is hitting in all corners, but salaries are rising too, according to our latest salary survey of designers and design engineers. Can the good times last?
Digital Factory
According to research firm IDTechEx, it’s only a matter of time before an array of sensors and cobots spur far greater automation and flexibility. Senior technology analyst Matthew Dyson, Ph.D., discusses key trends in industrial manufacturing and the timeline for adoption.
Printed Circuit Design & Fab Circuits Assembly September 2022 cover
No-Flux Reflow
A no-flux reflow process can mitigate residue issues in vacuum soldering and avoid additional cleaning steps that add process time and cost.
What is the most recent skill you have added to your toolbox? The annual SMTAI Women’s Leadership Program offers hands-on mentoring for the next generation of engineers.
The Future of US Manufacturing
with Matt Kelly
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PO Box 807
Stephen Chavez, chairman
Michael Creeden, vice chairman
Justin Fleming, secretary
Gary Ferrari, chairman emeritus

Michael Buetow
Tomas Chester
Douglas Dixon
Tara Dunn
Richard Hartley
Scott McCurdy
Anaya Vardya
Susy Webb
Eriko Yamato










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The Route
A headshot photo of Mike Buetow smiling (Editor-in-Chief at UP Media Group)


Grounded! What The Electronics Industry Can Learn from Airlines

NYONE WHO HAS boarded a plane in the past several months knows this all too well: the near-term operations of airlines are up in the air.

From smallest to largest, all the carriers have been dramatically affected by the post-Covid rebound in passenger air travel. How could it not? After all, Delta and United Airlines each cut 30% of their respective staff in 2020, for instance.

And while many observers point to the attractive buyouts the carriers dangled before critical employees (read: pilots) as a means to cut costs amid the mass groundings during the pandemic, employment has shot up over the past 18 months.

Take Delta, for instance. The second-largest airline in the world has hired 18,000 new employees since January 2021. But even with its staffing back to 95% of what it was pre-Covid, capacity reportedly is some 10 percentage points lower. Reason: It takes time to train the newbies.

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Around the World

PCDF People
American Standard Circuits appointed John Johnson director of business development, with a special focus on the growth of Averatek’s A-SAP technology. He has held several significant leadership positions, including president of PCB fabricator Electrotek and vice president of sales and customer support at Averatek.

Ivor Langston, 95, founder of Fine Line Circuits, has passed away.

Nano Dimension named Dale Baker president of Nano Dimension – Americas. He previously worked at General Electric & Trading and in GE’s Electrical Distribution and Control business, and GE Capital, where he was senior vice president and manager, responsible for investing in M&A. He also has served as the CEO or president of seven companies.

Matt Wuensch
Nano Dimension named Matt Wuensch account manager. He previously spent nearly five years at Anark as director of enterprise sales, and has held positions in sales, business development and engineering at Honeywell, Mentor and Motorola in his 37 years in electronics.

Schmid Systems promoted Michael Scarfia to customer service and named Jeremy Malicowski field service engineer.

Around the World
A Sustainable and Cost-Efficient Solution to Replace Etching Processes

RHINE-NECKAR, GERMANY – InnovationLab announced a new additive manufacturing process for printed circuit boards said to meet higher environmental standards while also reducing costs.

Within the research project SmartEEs2, InnovationLab and its partner ISRA have developed a novel manufacturing process for copper-based solderable circuits. The circuits are screen-printed and are compatible with conventional reflow processes.

Producing printed electronics is an additive process free of toxic etchants, and runs at temperatures of around 150°C, thus reducing energy consumption versus conventional wet processing. Moreover, the substrates used in additive PCB manufacturing are up to 15 times thinner, compared to conventional techniques, which reduces material consumption and waste.

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Around the World
Nordson to Acquire CyberOptics, Further Consolidating SMT AOI Market
WESTLAKE, OH – Nordson in August signed a definitive agreement to acquire CyberOptics in an all-cash transaction valued at $54 a share, or approximately $380 million net of cash.

The closing price reflects a valuation of 18.5 times CyberOptics’ trailing 12 months EBITDA, and 14.5 times net of cost synergies. The transaction is expected to close in Nordson’s first quarter fiscal 2023, pending applicable regulatory and shareholder approvals.

“We are looking forward to welcoming CyberOptics’ nearly 200 employees to Nordson. The company’s leading-edge 3D optical sensing technology and market leading wireless measurement sensors will expand Nordson’s current test and inspection capabilities, allowing us to offer new differentiated solutions to our semiconductor and electronics customers. We will invest in CyberOptics’ greatest opportunities for profitable growth while also providing the advantages of our global business infrastructure and customer-centric model,” said Sundaram Nagarajan, president and chief executive.

Headquartered in Minneapolis, CyberOptics generates approximately $100 million in annual revenue. It makes sensors used for semiconductor and SMT inspection and metrology, and AOI equipment for board and component inspection.

“Our global Test & Inspection division within the Advanced Technology Solutions segment predominantly serves the electronics market in diversified end customer applications and has been delivering consistent, profitable growth,” said Joseph Kelley, executive vice president and CFO. “The differentiated technologies of CyberOptics combined with Nordson’s global sales, applications and service infrastructure will enable accelerated growth rates and the realization of $6 million in net cost synergies.”

Around the World
Naprotek Acquires MicroFab in EMS Rollup

SAN JOSE – Naprotek in August completed the acquisition of privately held MicroFab, adding RF products and services to its electronics manufacturing mix. The business and entire MicroFab team will be integrated into the East Coast operations at SemiGen, which Naprotek acquired last fall. Financial terms were not disclosed.

Naprotek now offers an array of custom build-to-print thin film products, supported by enhanced capabilities and a wider spectrum of thin film technologies.

Edgewater Capital financed the deal for Naprotek.

Manchester, NH-based MicroFab was founded in 1999 and provides of precision RF circuit fabrication and atomic-level micromachining services. The company provides ion beam etching, plating, dicing, and micromachining services and thin film components for communications, microwave, biomedical sensors, and fiber optics applications serving the defense, medical, and telecom markets.

“Our team continues to excel across the Naprotek platform, increasing our strengths with differentiated technologies spanning from SMT to RF/microwave and advanced microelectronics. With a careful execution strategy, the integration of MicroFab into SemiGen strengthens the end-to-end RF Solutions for the East Coast operations of Naprotek,” said Daniel Everitt, president and CEO, Naprotek.

“The acquisition of MicroFab adds distinct manufacturing processes and products that will further complement our comprehensive product and service offering,” said Tim Filteau, president, SemiGen. “Our business has continued to grow rapidly with ever increasing technical requirements from our customers. Facing this demand, we are confident that MicroFab will immediately augment our RF Solutions capabilities, and we are excited to welcome John Kelley, Wayne Stauss and the entire MicroFab team to SemiGen.”

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Around the World
CA People
Levente Liszka
AIM Solder appointed Levente Liszka Eastern Europe sales manager. He has over 10 years’ experience in the electrical, electronics and automotive industries and a degree in mechanical engineering. AIM also promoted Petr Bettinec to business development manager, Europe.

Charlie Barnhart, a former EMS executive turned market researcher, has passed away.

Dr. Jennie Hwang has been appointed chairman of the Laboratory Assessment Board of The National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine.

Eddie Ichiyama
Ken Katsumi
Sigmatron president James Barnes has resigned to pursue another business opportunity. In the interim, chief executive and chairman Gary Fairhead will serve as acting president.

Wago hired Jeffrey Govek as senior sales and application engineer.

Around the World
GPV Says New Mechanics Factory in Thailand on Schedule

BANGKOK – Construction of GPV’s new mechanics factory here is rapidly progressing, the electronics manufacturing services company said in mid-August.

As of July, pilings for the new factory in Thailand had been completed and the lobby, second-floor office and cafeteria, high-precision area, utility building and loading bay are progressing according to plan. The factory roofing is expected to be finished this month.

All work with the precast materials, such as columns, beams and walls, as well as steel structure are manufactured, and progress continues as planned. Moreover, the piping for the fire protection sprinkler system and sanitary system, along with the electrical work, are also progressing as planned.

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PCEA Current Events
Chapter News
Orange County PCEA chapter conference
Chris Hunrath addresses the Orange County chapter.
Orange County, CA. We held our first in-person Lunch-N-Learn meeting event in 2.5 years on Jul. 26 in Santa Ana, CA. It was hosted by Insulectro and attracted an audience of 44 designers, engineers, and fabricators to listen to three educational presentations.
PCEA Current Events
PCB West Technical Conference Early Bird Discount Deadline Looms
PEACHTREE CITY, GA – Printed circuit engineers are ready to get back to face-to-face events, and the PCB West technical conference has all the reasons they need to make their return to live interaction more than worth their time.

Registrants who sign up at by Sept. 6 can take advantage of the Early Bird Special discounts for the conference, which features 40 presentations spanning more than 110 hours of classroom time.

Among the industry experts on tap for this year’s show are Rick Hartley, Susy Webb, Tomas Chester and Dan Beeker, headlining a stellar list of technical experts presenting at PCB West. The conference will be held Oct. 4 to 7 at the Santa Clara (CA) Convention Center and features classes for every level of experience, from novice to expert.

PCEA Current Events
Booth Sales Open for PCB East 2023

PEACHTREE CITY, GA – PCEA has opened the show floor to exhibitors for next year’s PCB East conference and exhibition. The one-day exhibition takes place May 10 at the Boxboro Regency in Boxborough, MA, sandwiched by the three-day (May 9-11) technical conference.

Companies interested in exhibiting may visit or contact PCEA vice president of marketing and sales Frances Stewart at for details.

“We just completed a two-week soft opening exclusive to returning exhibitors,” said Mike Buetow, president, PCEA and conference director, PCB East. “Now we are opening the floor to any companies that want access to the vibrant New England electronics design and manufacturing industry.”

Fischer Technology
Market Watch
Hot Takes
  • DRAM market demand bit growth will amount to 8.3% in 2023, growing less than 10% for the first time in history, and far lower than supply-side bit growth of approximately 14%. Data indicate the DRAM market to be severely oversupplied through at least 2023, and prices may continue to decline. (Trendforce)
  • Worldwide semiconductor sales totaled $152.5 billion during the second quarter, up 13% from 2021 and 0.5% over the first quarter. (SIA)
  • Total North American PCB shipments rose 17.1% in June versus last year and jumped 26.3% sequentially. Year-to-date bookings fell 4.1% from a year ago but increased 14.4% from May. (IPC)
  • Global sales of total semiconductor manufacturing equipment by original equipment manufacturers are forecast to reach a record $118 billion in 2022, rising 14.7% from the previous industry high of $103 billion in 2021, and increase to $121 billion in 2023. (SEMI)
  • Smartphone shipments declined 8.7% year-over-year in the June period. (IDC)
  • Sales of software for designing printed circuit boards and multichip modules increased 1.4% to $293 million in the quarter ended Mar. 31. (ESD Alliance)
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Business’s Hidden Critical Asset
A sense of urgency most go toward protecting your tribal knowledge.
Every business keeps a mindful eye on critical assets. On any corporate balance sheet those assets are identified, valued and periodically updated. Indeed, business valuations are often tied directly to those assets, enabling companies to borrow money to acquire additional assets. Regrettably, no balance sheet includes or values the most important and valuable (and perhaps invaluable) asset a company has: tribal knowledge.

The term “tribal knowledge” is used to encompass all the knowledge, experience and wisdom a business’s combined workforce brings to the game each day. It describes what for centuries has been a key asset of all businesses, especially manufacturers. Despite its importance however, historically it has not been universally acknowledged of value nor viewed as a competitive advantage that contributes to organizational profitability.

Much like DNA, tribal knowledge differentiates one company from another. The combined knowledge, skills and experiences of employees from various companies may be similar, but how they are deployed, the problems they have overcome, and their successes shape the character of the tribe, and contribute to one organization looking and acting different from another.

What is the Real Key to Domestic PCB Industry Success?
The recognition and funds are good. But do they attack an underlying issue?
Reading Dr. Hayao Nakahara’s annual accounting of the printed circuit board market (which ran in these pages last month), it’s hard to believe Taiwan was once dependent on Japan for PCB knowledge.

Years ago, however, it wasn’t Taiwan and China battling it out for market dominance; it was Japan and the US. Yet long before China emerged as a player, Taiwan had already identified PCBs as a key area for development.

Fulfilling that goal led to some interesting tactical moves. Nascent Taiwanese board shops, for instance, would entice Japan’s PCB engineers with huge financial incentives to moonlight in Taiwan on weekends. Planes would arrive to pick up workers on Fridays and return them to Japan on Sundays. It was lucrative for the engineers, while it aided Taiwan’s efforts to close the gap in technical knowledge.

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designer’s notebook
Ensuring Proper Alignment of Layers and Components on a PCB
Why a tooling hole remains the answer for an end-to-end process.
Technology marches on and the result is a decreased margin for error. Even the language must adapt as mils give way to microns, because one thousandth of an inch is too coarse a measure for modern PCB geometry. As traces and spaces shrink to accommodate the latest chips, the onus is on fabricators and assemblers to achieve greater precision in all aspects of manufacturing.

Where does it end? Could Intel’s new 2nm fab be the last stop? It seems so but I would not bet on it. Somewhere, somebody is working on angstrom class devices. Why not? Well, a single atom of copper comes in around 0.23nm, so Intel is depositing about eight or nine atoms of copper across the width of a connection. To quote Carl Sagan, “Billions and billions,” but we’re scaling down rather than up.

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Register by the early bird deadline of
to save up to $200 on the 4-day all-inclusive conference pass!
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October 4 – 7
Wednesday, October 5

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CONFERENCE: October 4 – 7
EXHIBITION: Wednesday, October 5
Who’s Exhibiting
Accurate Circuit Engineering

AGC Multi Material America, Inc

All Flex Flexible Circuits & Heaters


American Standard Circuits, Inc. APCT

Arlon EMD


Bay Area Circuits, Inc.

Bittele Electronics Inc.


Cadence Design Systems

Cicor Group


DownStream Technologies, Inc. DuraTech Industries

Dynamic Electronics Co. Ltd.

EM Solutions Inc.

EMA Design Automation Emerald EMS

Firan Technology Group – FTG Fischer Technology, Inc.

Flexible Circuit Technologies Fujipoly America

Glenair, Inc.


HZO, Inc.

IBE Electronics Inc.


Imagineering, Inc.


IPC-2581 Consortium

Ironwood Electronics



Jove Enterprise Limited

JS Electronic

Kinwong Electronic

Lab Wizard

Leader Tech, Inc.

Metallic Resources

MFS Technology (S) Pte Ltd.

MicroConnex, A Carlisle Company

Micro Systems Technologies

Management GmbH

MVINIX Corporation

Nano Dimension

Notion Systems GmbH

Oak-Mitsui Technologies LLC

OKI Circuit Technology Co., Ltd.

Optiprint AG

Panasonic Electronic Materials

PCB Technologies – USA

PFC Flexible Circuits Limited

Photonics Systems USA

Polar Instruments, Inc.


Printed Circuit Engineering

Association (PCEA)

Printed Circuits LLC

Quantic Ohmega/Quantic Ticer

Rogers Corporation

San Diego PCB Design

San-ei Kagaku Co., Ltd.

Screaming Circuits

SEP Co., Ltd.


Sierra Circuits

Summit Interconnect

Sunshine Global Circuits

Sunstone Circuits

Surface Mount Technology

Association (SMTA)

SVTronics, Inc.

Taiyo America Inc.


Tempo Automation

Trilogy-Net Inc.

Ultra Librarian

Vayo (Shanghai) Technology Co., Ltd

Ventec International Group


Victory Giant Technology

Xiamen Bolion Tech Co., Ltd.

Zuken USA Inc.
material gains
What’s So ‘Super’ about Supercomputers?
Work continues on quantum machines. But classical computing is here, now, and faster and more powerful than ever.
When Frontier, the latest supercomputer at the US Department of Energy’s Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), went live at the end of May, it became the first to demonstrate true exascale performance, according to the TOP500 organization that benchmarks commercially available computer systems. At 1.102 Exaflop/s (quintillion operations per second), Frontier’s performance is three times faster than the previous performance leader, Fujitsu’s Fugaku system at the Riken Center for Computational Science (R-CCS) in Kobe, Japan. By breaking the exascale barrier, Frontier is 10 times faster than its ORNL predecessor, Summit.

That’s an impressive margin and all the more remarkable, perhaps, in today’s post-Moore world, where chip-process advancements alone can no longer deliver the exponential gains computer developers have come to expect. The team at ORNL worked with supercomputer builder Cray and chipmaker AMD to create an incredibly powerful underlying computing platform that converges traditional modeling and simulation with big data analytics and artificial intelligence.

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The ECAD Industry is Firing on All Cylinders. No Wonder Wages are Rising.
Salaries spiked in the past year. Can it last? by Mike Buetow
Inflation is hitting in all corners, but salaries are rising too. That’s according to the latest PCD&F/CIRCUITS ASSEMBLY salary survey of printed circuit designers and design engineers.

About 85% of those responding to the annual survey indicated their wages rose at least 1% in the past year, with more than 22% reporting hikes of seven percent or more. That’s an acceleration from 2021, when 47% of designers indicated their salaries were on the rise.

PCD&F/CIRCUITS ASSEMBLY surveyed designers and design engineers (for brevity, we will use the term “designers”) over a 60-day period between May 19 and Jul. 19 this year. More than 200 designers responded to the survey, which is designed to capture a snapshot of the salary and compensation trends. PCD&F has conducted the survey for more than 25 years.

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Why I4.0 and Reshoring Go Hand in Hand

The path to digitize a factory is both closer and cheaper than most engineers realize. by Mike Buetow
Reshoring has been a buzzword for a few years now. But when supply chains are undergoing dramatic disruption and inflation is raging worldwide, what is the reality?

According to research firm IDTechEx, it’s only a matter of time before an array of sensors and cobots spur far greater automation and flexibility. The firm recently published a white paper titled “Factory of the Future” that summarizes the expected advancements. Indeed, some of these changes are both relatively inexpensive and simple in scope yet open a realm of possibilities for greater process control.

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No-Flux Reflow
Robust Tacking Material Technology to Reduce Tool and Fixturing Complexity in
Power Module Assembly
A solution for flux-free formic acid reflow? by Joseph Hertline
Growing performance demands for power electronics systems, driven by rapid advancements in application areas such as electric vehicle (EV) technology, present challenges for module design.1 With increased junction temperatures, current densities and complex thermal packaging solutions, engineers must improve reliability through the design phase and material selection process. This requires constant optimization of the power module design and process flow to produce effective and reliable solutions. For successful power electronics applications, however, the production process is equally as critical as the design to achieve the required quality and cost target. One key element is the use of tooling as it affects the design (e.g., distance and tolerances between dies) and manufacturing processes (cycle time, quality and costs). Process advancements of high-quality reflow techniques with vacuum and formic acid have proven effective to achieve reliability targets,2,3 but the focus is shifting toward scalability and efficiency to bring up production levels that meet the aggressive needs for these new applications. Due to the constantly increasing power densities in power modules, soldering processes that avoid use of additional flux are becoming more important. The upfront cost in development of processes, unique equipment, and dedicated fixturing to achieve quality is a growing concern that presents both a significant financial burden as well as a time-to-market impact for power module manufacturers introducing new designs.
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Tools for Technology Innovation and
Career Advancement
The annual Women’s Leadership Program offers hands-on mentoring for the next generation of engineers. by Priyanka Dobriyal, Ph.D.
Priyanka Dobriyal, Ph.D.
Priyanka Dobriyal, Ph.D.
What is the most recent skill you have added to your toolbox?

As I was sharing recent accomplishments with one of my mentors, she suggested I think of my new skills as new tools in my toolbox. That conversation gave me a different perspective to reflect on the skills I have collected so far and encouraged me to strategically plan the next steps in my career.

I started gravitating toward the idea of this imaginary toolbox and collected skills, which adhered to my core values of creating a sustainable and purpose-driven career. While planning the theme for the 2022 Women’s Leadership Program (WLP), which takes place Nov. 1 at SMTA International, I discussed this idea with the organizing committee, and it was very well-received. We brainstormed on how to bring this idea to reality and enable women colleagues to advance their careers. Taking the time to reflect on the skills in your toolbox makes you self-aware and cognizant of your self-worth. Knowing what you bring to the table helps you build the confidence you need to navigate your career. Hence the concept of a toolbox seemed appropriate for the WLP, as the goal of this session is to empower women to explore technology innovations and career progression in the electronics industry. Now are you ready to think about the skills in your toolbox that could help your career advancement?

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  • Information, opportunities & marketing channels to highlight your brands, products & services to buyers & users worldwide
  • Inclusion in the PCEA Member Directory, a product & service guide for buyers & users
  • Free advertising of your products & services to more than 50,000 design engineers, fabricators & assemblers
  • Discounts on trade shows, technical conferences, online learning platforms & webinars
Join today:

Offering price points to meet every company’s budget and needs!

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Evaluating and Communicating Shortage Risks
The horizontal report provides a supply vs. demand “map” showing where shortages will hit.
At its foundation, Lean manufacturing philosophy is designed to eliminate waste and the associated chaos that inefficiency creates. Many of the core elements that improve factory efficiency, such as visible flow of work-in-process, small lot sizes, a strong focus on minimizing variation and poka-yokes to eliminate defect opportunities, have parallels that can increase efficiency in support organization tasks.

One of the most challenging tasks in the electronics manufacturing services (EMS) world is program management. This normally complex job has been made even more difficult by electronic component shortages that have been endemic since January 2021. As experts are predicting that component supply/demand imbalances are likely to continue through 2023, finding ways to eliminate inefficiency and waste is as important in program management as it is in production.

Stay connected to top PCB Leaders with
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Rick Hartley
Susy Webb
Lee Ritchey
Gary Ferrari
& more
It’s like having a second brain.
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Online courses and webinars for the printed circuit engineering community.
Seeing is Believing
Engineering the Sale
Knowing your limits is no casual thing.
Because they interpret, manipulate and are acclimated to numbers, many engineers fancy themselves superior to the rest. The “rest” are lumped into the catchall contemptuous categories of “salesmen” or worse, “accountants.” No room for improvisation; a certain analytical mindset likes it that way. Stay out of sales as a career option.

Pity those same engineers don’t look up more from their algorithms, develop a firm handshake, maintain eye contact, read the room, and discern clients’ actual intent. Supply doesn’t ensure demand; sometimes you must stir it up in English rather than second derivatives. A skill largely born, not bred. That’s also why there will always be a need for good sales folks; the best, most adventurous of whom are at ease technically, thus better equipped to know whereof they speak, and why, and make commitments on the spot, without appealing to the Mothership.

Off The Shelf typography
Off The Shelf typography
Machines Materials Tools Systems Software
Easy-PC v. 26 PCB design software
Number One Systems Easy-PC v. 26 ECAD
Easy-PC v. 26 PCB design software incorporates IPC-2581 export capability, plus over 25 other new technology features. Fully implements IPC-2581 standard and includes a number of options to create the output required for manufacturing, assembly, and test. Incorporates new and enhanced design rules checks (DRC) and design for manufacturing (DfM) options in schematic capture and PCB design. Minimum Solder Mask Width, Solder Mask to Track, and Minimum Text Size aid manufacturability and prevent costly mistakes. Modified Pour Areas, a design verification check, alerts the designer to incomplete design changes that would not be incorporated in manufacturing. Unconnected Gates option removes unnecessary DRC warnings related to unconnected power pins in a multi-gate package.
Inspectis Digital Microscope Software v. 6.3
Inspectis software version 6.3 has several new features, improvements and bug fixes for its family of 4K and FHD digital microscopes. Is approved for use with Windows 11. Other notable improvements include live viewing distortion correction and auto-calibration that make it possible to make precise calibrations quickly over a range of magnifications. Now saves up to 16 preset parameters via a user-configurable preset button. Each button can be named and the label read by hovering the mouse over the active button in the display. Preset calibration values for all cameras have been improved, and F35, F35s, DIM-F, DIM-FX, DIM-U, and DIM-UX camera microscopes have been added to the software.
Qualitek Delta 769LF Solder Paste
Delta 769LF is a zero-halogen, water-soluble solder paste for both nitrogen and air reflow applications. Is designed for high-melting temperature lead-free alloys, such as SAC 305 and Sn96.5/Ag3.5. Provides fluxing activity levels that promote thermal stability and prevents thermal degradation when reflowing under air atmosphere. Provides consistent print performance at wide humidity levels, solderability, and promotes cleaning performance to yield bright, shiny solder joints. Is a stable water-soluble formulation that provides consistent tack time, stencil life and print definition. Is classified as ORH0 flux under IPC-J-STD-004C.
Technical Abstracts
In Case You Missed It
E-Waste Reuse

“Value-added Fabrication of NiO-doped CuO Nanoflakes from Waste Flexible Printed Circuit Board for Advanced Photocatalytic Application”

Authors: R. Hossain, R.K. Nekouei and A. Al Mahmood, et al.

Abstract: Electronic waste (e-waste) presents metals could be recovered and transformed for use in beneficial applications, such as the manufacture of nanomaterials for the generation of hydrogen through thermodynamic water-splitting. This study used microrecycling techniques to synthesize nitrogen oxide (NiO) doped copper oxide (CuO) nanoflakes from waste flexible printed circuit boards (FPCBs) using microrecycling techniques. Several precise characterization and experimental analysis were used to validate the synthesized nanoflakes’ phase purity, surface chemistry, morphology and optical properties. XRD analysis confirmed the nanoflakes produced in the system were predominantly tenorite, CuO (98.5% ± 4.5) with a dopant of NiO (1.5% ± 0.1). The nanoflakes had a specific surface area of 115.703m2/g and mesoporous structure with an average pore diameter of 11nm. HRTEM analysis confirmed that the nanoflakes were not a single structure but assembled from 2-D nanorods. The width of the nanorods varied from ~10 to 50nm, and the length from ~30 to 80nm. After rapid thermal processing, the photocurrent response of the synthesized material was assessed, revealing a higher photocurrent density (− 1.9 mA/cm2 at 0.6V vs. reversible hydrogen electrode (RHE) under 1.5G AM). Mott Schottky analysis and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy showed that the synthesized nanomaterial had the potential thermodynamic water-splitting capability. These results were an encouraging indication of the promise of techniques that use e-waste to produce nanomaterials with valuable properties. (Scientific Reports, Jul. 16, 2022,

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